11:57,28,Jun,2005 | (9201/0/0) | Original

treatment for non hodgkin's lymphoma


[Abstract] Objective: To investigate the EMCOP in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. Methods: EMCOP combined with chemotherapy (VP-16, MTN, CTX, VCR, Pred) treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 30 cases. Among them, the initial treatment in 24 cases, 6 cases of retreatment. And impact of drug toxicity and efficacy factors were analyzed. Results: 30 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma complete remission rate was 66.7%, partial response rate of 23.3%, 90.0% total efficiency, 2-year survival rate of 53.3%. Conclusion: EMCOP program for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma chemotherapy better, whether this group of cases in the initial treatment or retreatment are more effective than CHOP program.
[Key words] non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; podophyllotoxin ethylidene glucoside; mitoxantrone
[CLC] R733.4 [Document code] C [Article ID] 1673-7210 (2008) 09 (a) -036-02
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL) is a highly heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies. Clinically, mostly CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) as first-line combination chemotherapy programs, domestic and international coverage of its 45% complete remission rate was 55%, total effective rate was 70% 90%, 2 to 3 year survival rate was 40% [1]. To further improve the response rate and prolong survival or response time, we EMCOP program combined with chemotherapy NHL 30 patients achieved good effect, are reported as follows:
1 Materials and Methods
1.1 General Information
Our hospital in January 2002 ~ December 2007 to EMCOP in the treatment of NHL 30 patients, all patients were diagnosed by lymph node biopsy NHL.
treatment for non hodgkin s lymphoma

Introduction in English: Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and continue to reflect the heterogeneity of the disease and the biological basis of cell origin of new insights. Course of varying lengths, from no obvious symptoms are resistant to the rapid and early death. In some types of NHL, 50% of the children and about 20% of adult patients with leukemia-like changes. epidemiology in the United States each year, about 50,000 cases of NHL incidence in the 4% of all cancers and all cancers each year in the proportion of deaths caused by NHL accounts for 4%. In the past few decades the incidence of NHL increased stability was sustained growth of 3% each year than most
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cancer growth in sub-fast, partly due to the AIDS epidemic, and the other may also be other unknown causes. Italian study on 1388 cases of NHL were analyzed showed immune suppression and HIV prevalence can not explain the NHL's growth trend, while the delayed infection (delayed infection) Th1/Th2 lymphocytes by increasing the damage risk of NHL can be explained by continued growth in the current NHL . NHL patients with bacterial or viral infection for the first time the
age was significantly higher. And the first occurrence of infectious disease incidence of older age can increase the risk of NHL small, family only people of high social status was not found when the HL and the first age-related infection. NHL NHL men more common than women, whites are more common than the other races, unknown or the reasons for this may be due to genetic factors in some ethnic differences in certain NHL subtypes, such as the reticular tissue lymphoma is very obvious it a large proportion of Western countries are rare in developing countries. Singapore in 1996 and 1968 to 1992 of 1988 cases of NHL patients were analyzed: the Chinese and Malaysians, the incidence of NHL were tested growth trends, and the women (1968 to 1972 the incidence was 1.8/10 million to 1988 ~ 1992 4.5/10 million) grew faster than men (at the same time period increased to 5.9/10 3.2/10 million million) in the lymphatic system to other diseases, genetic factors may also play an important role, such as chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (chronic lymphocytic lympahoma, CLL) and multiple myeloma, CLL in Asian populations is very low and the incidence of multiple myeloma in African Americans (African Americans) in the incidence rate increased. On the other hand, some countries, especially common in certain lymphomas and viral infections such as EBV (as in South America and Asia, more common in the NK-cell lymphoma or Burkitt lymphoma-prone Africa) HTLV-â…  (as in the Caribbean and Asia common adult T cell leukemia / lymphoma), or hepatitis virus C (more common in northern Italy, and Japan B-cell lymphoma, particularly immunoblastic lymphoma). In most cases disseminated disease, NHL non-specific risk factors. However, epidemiological studies reveal the NHL major risk factors for the environment, diet, immune status and infection. Environmental and occupational factors in the agricultural workers, NHL incidence in the general population. Numerous studies show that exposure to pesticides and herbicides 24 - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (24-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ,2,4-D) can increase the risk of NHL. The United States over the past 40 years, pesticide use was growing trend, through the family garden and lawn food and water directly through the extensive exposure to pesticides in addition to the field of pesticides in surface water nitrate pollution in some parts of the United States is also a serious The problem, to a certain extent with a high incidence of NHL in addition to agricultural work on other career but also have a higher risk of NHL. These occupations include work exposure to chemical agents, such as chemists Dry Cleaning workers, printing workers, carpenters, beauticians and other exposure to acetic acid (phenoxyacetic acid), especially benzene, chloroform and the solvent is also increased risk of NHL, especially the use of permanent hair dye increase the risk of preparation and the NHL. A study reveals that application of hair coloring agents in the NHL NHL caused about 20% of cases. Nutrition and diet studies have shown that increased intake of protein or vitamins and vegetable intake to reduce disease progression and the NHL two European studies found that milk intake increased incidence of NHL increased and correlated high intake of milk (> 2 cups / d) NHL 2-fold increase in the risk; Nebraska (Nebraska), a study reported that cancer risk is limited to men. In a study of the United States 88,410 cases and 47,336 cases of women, men, only the application of vitamin A, C and E or multivitamins is increased risk of NHL were studied. Studies show that women using a variety of vitamins can increase risk of NHL and men are not affected, only application of vitamin A, C and E and the incidence of NHL has nothing to do. For women, only the application of vitamins AC and E can increase the risk of NHL. But the risk of secondary applications in a variety of vitamins after. In addition, whether male or female long-term regular use of vitamin AC and E or multivitamins and fatal NHL has nothing to do. Smoking has been that smoking increases the risk of NHL, but the results of epidemiological studies do not fully support this Jielun epidemiological studies in Australia, five cohort studies 4 revealed the incidence of smoking and NHL but 3 of Wu Guan a preference not to smoke. 14 case-control study 8 revealed the current and (or) no previous relationship between smoking and NHL incidence, but five studies tend not to smoke another study found that serious risk of smoking can increase the incidence of NHL, especially the 45 years of age. Therefore, the current epidemiological study did not confirm that smoking increases the risk of NHL, but there is no evidence that the incidence of smoking has nothing to do with the NHL. Immune pathogenesis of immune suppression increases the risk of NHL. The best example is the increased incidence of AIDS NHL patients with other immune deficiency states such as rheumatoid arthritis, sjogren syndrome, and organ transplantation increases the risk of NHL. In many cases of immune deficiency in the NHL, the risk of infection with EBV. Infection of certain infectious factors can greatly increase the risk of NHL. Some infectious agents can cause different types of NHL, but some other infectious agent related to a particular subtype. (1) EBV: causes lymphoid malignancy is the most important pathogens of many EBV it with NHL and HL subtypes and EBV-related NHL related, including Burkitt lymphoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis NK / T cell lymphoma in a These angioimmunoblastic lymphoma and intestinal T-cell lymphoma and other Chinese study reported a larger series, NHL 14% positive rate of EBV, but EBV is rare due to gastric lymphoma mycosis fungoides (MF) T cells in the skin lymphoma (CTCL), a clinical subtype of skin tumor cell invasion. The cause of CTCL has not been clear. Recently, a Japanese study detected by DNA in situ hybridization 7 cases of MF in all cases are detected EBV DNA, and detected by polymerase chain reaction in most cases have EBV DNA. Immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization also confirmed the existence of the above results show that EBV, EBV and the pathogenesis of CTCL. (2) HTLV-â…  (human T cell lymphoma / leukemia virus): 1980, U.S. and Japanese scholars isolated a virus and adult T-cell lymphoma / leukemia is closely related to the HTLV-â… ; Although most of the gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma by the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) causes, but HTLV-â…  infection can also lead to MALT lymphoma. Virus infection is generally believed that tumors are two possible ways: direct viral induced lymphocyte transformation; have abnormal lymphocytes susceptible to virus infection, and on this basis for further transformation. (3) HCV: a recent study found that hepatitis virus C (HCV) infection increases the risk of NHL B cells, especially immune cells and growth of tumors in the liver and a large number of studies reported that the salivary gland lymphoma, HCV is the cause of B cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) of the pathogens. A Japanese study also revealed B cell NHL in patients with HCV infection was significantly higher than that of non-B cell NHL, and HCV-positive B-cell NHL patients, liver involvement and liver a number of cases of the more common cardiac death reported in the course of chronic hepatitis C virus infection lymphoma in the spleen can occur. (4) HIV: NHL to one of AIDS-related tumors, 1988 to 1998, reported AIDS cases in Western Europe the incidence of NHL and 3.9% from 3.8% in 1988 to 5.3% in 1998. In the HIV / AIDS in low-grade adult relative risk of NHL (RR) was 14, high grade NHL, RR, 300 or more. Developing countries compared with Western European countries such as Africa, A1DS related lower the incidence of NHL. Italian epidemiological study found that from 1985 to 1994, 15 AIDS, 49, 136 cases of NHL patients in the same age group accounted for 8% of all NHL in the AIDS 1 year before diagnosis and 3.5 years after diagnosis, AIDS patients with NHL overall standardized incidence rate (SIR) for the 302 in the diagnosis of AIDS within 3 months after the SIR is particularly high for the 394, then decreased to 170 women (428) than men (280) SIR slightly higher, intravenous drug injection (299) and other HIV infection (309) SIR fairly high degree of malignancy in AIDS patients with NHL, especially immunoblastic type and the incidence of Burkitt lymphoma, 2 times the non-AIDS patients; the contrary, the incidence of low-grade NHL than in AIDS patients AIDS patients with non-AIDS patients compared with non-AIDS, NHL involvement of the brain were more common in AIDS patients in the group of grade NHL had no effect on the survival, overall survival is very low (2-year survival rate was 10%). (5) HHV-8: human herpes virus -8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus) is a new DNA virus and the pro-lymphatic recently proposed NHI is a rare PEL (characteristic of the body cavity lymphoma / primary effusion lymphoma, primary effusion lymphoma) and most also have HIV related infection. In the course of the disease has been the growth of tumor cells in the body cavity in the liquid without the formation of lumps and other viruses of different HHV-8 virus-encoded protein homologous to several people, including cytokines (IL-6, MIPSIRFS) and regulatory proteins (cycle Su D, G protein receptor), affecting B cell growth thus play an important role in the pathogenesis of PEL. Another study found that, LANA2 overexpression of HHV-8 infection in B cells LANA2 caused by inhibiting the p53 tumor which needs to be further confirmed. (6) other infection factors: Bo burgdorferi (Borrella burgdorfferi) is caused by Lyme disease (Lyme's Disease) pathogens, some of it associated with cutaneous lymphoma of one of our studies have shown that human herpes virus -6 (human herpesvirus-6 , HHV-6) virus may be involved in lymphoma pathogenesis of radiation exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs is not generally considered the main factor in the pathogenesis of NHL, but exposure to certain chemicals is the NHL major risk factors. HL NHL after the cumulative incidence rate of 1% to 6% recently, the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (GHSG) large amounts of data indicate that 5406 cases occurred HL HL patients after chemotherapy in 42 cases of secondary NHL the rate was 0.9% . Slightly lower than previously reported. 7. Other blood transfusion can increase the risk of NHL 1.5 to 2.5 times the risk may be infected with the transfer of the relevant factors and immunosuppressive effects. NHL familial and genetic immune defects that have a family history of leukemia or lymphoma population, the occurrence of inertia 3.3 times increased risk of lymphoma. Cause of the cause of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving viruses, bacteria, radiation, certain chemicals and herbicides agent multiple factors. Known high incidence of EB virus and Burkitt lymphoma and extranodal T / NK cell lymphoma nasal type on adult T-cell lymphoma / leukemia virus and human pro-T cells in type â…  (HTLV1) closely related infection. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a response to H. pylori infection caused by lesions of malignant transformation start radiation exposure, such as survivors of nuclear explosions and nuclear reactor accidents, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma cancer incidence increased risk. AIDS certain genetic diseases or acquired immune deficiency diseases such as autoimmune own ataxia - telangiectasia United Immune Deficiency Syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome (Sjogren's syndrome, Sj
Frequency Xunkan retail price of 540 yuan year / year the retail price of 15 yuan each / Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences of the organizers edited and published the "China Medicine" magazine national reunification International Standard Serial Number ISSN 1673-7210 CN11-5539 / R Youfadaihao 80-372 levy issued outside of the United code TP2705 Code Publication date scheduled in November 2004 Newspaper Publishing date format month 5,15,25 at large overseas, opening price of 16 HK 20 per circulation (per issue) 8000 magazine presents : "Chinese Medicine" magazine is the head of the Ministry of Health, the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences hosted a national medical and health journals, Department of the Chinese core journals (selection) database, China Academic Journal, Chinese Journal of database technology, the PLA Medical Library database contains full-text periodicals, monthly, and in the latter part of the publication of a domestic and international public offerings, domestic ISSN: CN11-5539 / R, International Issues ISSN1673-7210, Youfadaihao :80-372, priced 15.
"China Medicine" magazine, "Interpretation of medical policies and regulations, development trends of medicine, communication management philosophy, demonstrate medical research, clinical medicine reported progress" for the purpose of the vast number of medical workers to broaden their horizons, to understand the market, learning experience to explore issues, exchange and improve business and academic level of the personal staff assistant, is also published in academic medicine positions. Subscribe, welcome to submit.
"China Medicine" magazine columns established: expert forums, research progress, monographs, short of the experimental research, clinical research, pharmacology and toxicology, drug evaluation, biomedical, pharmaceutical identification, drugs and clinical, Anesthesia and Analgesia , medical tests, pathological analysis, imaging and intervention, Chinese medicine, preparation technology, modern nursing, Education Forum, case reports, misdiagnosis, adverse reaction monitoring, pharmacoeconomics, disease prevention and control, medical equipment, scientific management, pharmacy management, policy research, regulations and standards, industry and market, medical supervision, management, research, work study, health care forum, the cover of more than 30 columns.
"China Medicine" magazine focus on an international leader in innovative scientific research, research projects for the provincial level or above papers and articles first published journal subscribers. According to Ministry of Health "means continuing medical education credits awarded" requirement, published in the journal available to the national continuing medical education credits, this issue may be given to papers published in the paper of the certificate.
Column Description: Expert Forum
By the academicians, academician, national key research projects of academic leaders, doctoral supervisor and other written papers, with new ideas, new ideas, new methods and areas of academic medical research, management and other aspects of academic development some guidance.
Research
Request on the basis of literature review, an overview, analysis, review of the subject areas of new domestic and foreign research results, development of new trends and that their point of view, to subject the development of the forecast, make constructive comments and suggestions. New topics, reasoning and thorough, clear layer, language fluency, with a comprehensive, advanced, evaluating characteristics.
On the
Has high academic value of the field of medicine thesis, highlighting the scientific, innovative and practical. Point clear, reliable information, text, refining, levels of clear, accurate data, experimental design is reasonable, with charts and other visual forms of instructions, diagrams should be self-evidence. Statistically reasonable description specifications; text title concise, eye-catching, to reflect the theme of the article. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Short of the
Question papers set a high academic value, and a certain degree of scientific and innovation. Point clear, reliable information, text, refining, accurate data, experimental design is reasonable, results mainly in the chart shows, and make the appropriate text description, diagrams should be self-evidence. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Experimental study
The field of medicine experimental and theoretical research papers, topics rigorous, argument clear, accurate and reliable data, table design and reasonable. Experimental animals must be marked with the name of research, germ line, grade, quantity, origin, gender, age, weight, feeding conditions and health status. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Clinical Research
Main subjects reported clinical diagnosis and treatment, research and application of new therapies. Cases and controls need to account for the source selection criteria and the study of the age, gender and other important characteristics. The contents are new, scientific point of view, data integrity, rational design methods, the results were statistically analyzed to be part of and draw the appropriate conclusions. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Mainly related to Chinese medicine, Western medicine, Western medicine compound, microbial drugs, biochemical drugs, biological products and biotechnology drugs in preclinical and clinical pharmacology and toxicology studies in experimental research, including animal model and the method of study, pharmacokinetic study (absorption, metabolism, distribution, excretion, etc.), bioavailability of the former drug efficacy studies, drug interactions, and the in vitro testing. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Biomedical
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology R & D reports (including new technology, new achievements, new products, new patents) and promote the use of the original paper, introducing the production technology, operating techniques, laboratory tests and other technical improvements and Methods. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Drug Identification
Mainly include traditional Chinese medicine and natural medicine, the active chemical components of the extraction, separation, identification and chemical structure determination; chemical synthesis of drugs and technical improvements (including synthetic drugs and antimicrobial agents in the semi-synthetic and fully synthetic, purification and structure identification technology); microbial drugs fermentation, extraction, refining, component separation, identification; biochemical medicine, biotechnology, pharmaceutical separation, purification and structure identification. Western compound in the composition of the qualitative, quantitative, and test analysis, drug analysis methods (new methods, new technology and new equipment, etc.). And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Drugs and clinical
Main drug coverage (including an old drug new use) clinical trials, clinical application, drug treatment, rational drug use, interaction and drug evaluation. On the need for rational design methodology, some results were statistically analyzed and the corresponding conclusions, careful examination of the body text of the drug dose, the number of cases, the percentage of such data. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Focuses on domestic and international clinical anesthesia medication and technology, methods and effects of analgesic therapy. Requires a clear argument, arguments, reliable, accurate figures, refining the text, using appropriate statistical methods to analyze and then draw conclusions. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Medical Laboratory
Mainly reported biochemical, clinical testing, microbiological testing, immunoassay and other aspects of medical examination and cross-disciplinary research, theoretical discussion, cutting-edge technology and work practices and experience. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Pathological Analysis
Concerning the preoperative diagnosis of biopsy pathology, body fluids, secretions, biopsy material, exfoliated cells in pathological diagnosis, autopsy pathology diagnosis, pathological diagnosis, rapid paraffin section, introduced disease mechanisms and clinical pathophysiology.
Imaging and Intervention
Main report of Radiation Medicine (including CT, MRI, general X ray), Ultrasound in Medicine, Interventional Therapy, imaging technology, electronic endoscopy, nuclear medicine and other disciplines of the latest research, theoretical discussion and practical work experience. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Chinese medicine
Reported in the medical field mainly the latest research results. Include: traditional Chinese medicine research and development, Integrative Medicine Clinical study of various diseases, the traditional New Clinical by side, acupuncture and massage of the modern research and clinical experience.
Preparation and Technology
Pharmacy and the main report's experimental drug production technology research, involving natural medicine, Chinese medicine (traditional formulations and new dosage form), synthetic drugs, microbial drug production process (including production Strain); biochemical medicine, biotechnology drugs, biological products of the production process; pharmaceutical raw materials, intermediates, antimicrobial agents and the side chain precursor, preparation and extraction of resin and other materials production process; drugs (wood) synthesis, extraction, formulation and process research, stability research and studies of new formulations. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Nursing
Hot spots include nursing, nursing research, basic care, specialized care, rehabilitation care, emergency care, preventive care, community care, experience and innovation, health education, nursing education, nursing management.
Education Forum
Explore new ideas in medical education, new methods, new technology papers, including the administration of medical colleges, school characteristics, and status of education reform, teaching management, education research study, elite culture and so on. Reported that medical institutions and medical research institutes for teachers and educational administrators to explore medical disciplines in education, teaching reform process of the new ideas, new practices and their effects, as well as domestic and foreign reports the latest achievements in medical education and medical fields related to subject building.
Case reports
The main report and supplementary sections of the department of clinical diagnosis and treatment encountered in rare, rare case, including diseases, clinical manifestations are not common, rare adverse drug reactions, as well as a new disease or clinical events occurred in the first report .
Misdiagnosis
Clinical work reported in the main causes of misdiagnosis and mistreatment of various cases of misdiagnosis factors, to arouse the attention of the general clinical health workers to reduce the recurrence of similar incidents.
Adverse reaction monitoring
Mainly the monitoring of adverse drug reactions reported cases of adverse reactions to factors descriptive, analytical, experimental or investigative studies. Summary of adverse drug reactions should be more randomized controlled clinical trials, cohort studies or case-control study based on both rare cases of adverse reactions reported to promote systematic review. Also reported that drug-induced disease diagnosis and prevention and control.
Pharmacoeconomics
Including drug treatment and other treatment or drug treatment programs have different economic - The Comparative Analysis, in particular, drug imports and domestic drugs, new drugs and old drugs, special agents and general agents of the comparison; single disease drugs analysis cost - effectiveness analysis, cost - effectiveness analysis and cost - benefit analysis. And communication of the first of 100 words or less can be attached to the personal profile.
Disease Control and Prevention
Prevention and control of major areas of medical reports of new theories, new technology, new achievements and new methods. Particularly in relation to public health emergencies, public health monitoring and service improvement, progress in prevention and control of communicable diseases and so on. Include: labor hygiene, sanitation, nutrition and food hygiene, child adolescent health, radiation health, health toxicology, epidemiology, disease surveillance and immunization, disease prevention and health promotion, health care and health chemicals and Inspection and other aspects of scientific research and effective prevention and treatment experience.
Medical equipment
Mainly reported medical equipment, reagents, materials, product development, manufacturing, clinical applications, market analysis and forecasting, and other related aspects.
Research Management
Investigate and report on management of medical research and progress within the research to the national health administration, medical colleges, hospitals, health and epidemic prevention agencies and leading research institutions, research administrators and management activities involved in medical research experts in other disciplines, scholars, academic researchers and technology developers as the main target, the report discuss the theoretical methods of scientific research management, scientific and technological cooperation and exchanges, subject construction and technology talent management, learning dynamics and domestic and international research on the market. Presentation content should be scientific, logical, and theoretical and practical significance, refining the text to be accurate, fluent and focused.
Pharmacy Administration
Concerning the quality of management experience in pharmaceutical production and discussion of drug quality standards and quality checks of the results of the analysis, drug storage, storage, supply and business management experience, drug research, development, approval, protection, patents, national essential drug list, the State basic medical insurance drug list, prescription drugs and non-prescription drugs, out of variety of management experience, pharmaceutical organizations (government agencies, societies, information agencies, pharmacies, pharmacy, education and training, etc.) and pharmacists in the work of the problems found and the related views and recommended, pharmaceutical analysis and other policies and regulations.
Policy Research
Main areas of coverage for major national health policy development and adjustment, as well as the effect of the implementation, problems encountered and rationalization recommendations. Include: medical and health service system reform, medical price adjustment, health economics, the implementation of social health insurance, health care medical administration, health services administration information, health management, supervision and reporting of information policy. Involving medical, pharmaceutical, medical advertising management, health management. Higher contributions required political and ideological content, analysis and thorough, profound, words appropriate to express simplicity.
Regulations and standards
Existing laws and regulations of the field of medicine and a variety of standards and the inadequacy of measures to improve; reported that the field of medicine recently enacted laws and regulations, and specific projects to develop the appropriate standards in the implementation of its results, questions, suggestions, etc. to interpret. Include: Drug Registration Regulation, administrative rules and regulations of medical pharmaceutical, medical and health service standards and administrative regulations to prevent commercial bribery, medical, health economic regulations, drug and food hygiene standards, drug advertising regulations, health care laws and regulations and so on. Higher contributions required political and ideological content, analysis and thorough, profound, words appropriate to express simplicity.
Industry and Market
Mainly reported on the pharmaceutical industry and market sector analysis, management, market research, marketing strategy and industry dynamics and so on.
Medical supervision
The quality of medical care, health care reform, hospital management of various departments, pharmacy management, hospital culture, talent management, implementation; of drug supervision and management, basic drug management, drug storage management, drug price regulation, health insurance agents and fixed-point pharmacy management, pharmaceutical research and development quality control, drug production and operation of quality control, quality control of pharmaceutical care, medical insurance, pharmacy drug sales management activities, problems and countermeasures.
Management
Reports on the medical and health sector management theories, methods, personnel managemen
t, continuing education, primary health institutions management, non-public sector management, hospital management and related disciplines share the progress of work and experience. Presentation requirements of scientific and practical content, the argument clear, reliable information, is close to reality; text seeks to refine, accurate, fluent, the problem should be concise, eye-catching, reflecting the theme of the article. The accompanying text references should be concise.
Research
Reports and medical and health, health-related research reports, including health statistics, surveys and statistical physical development, life survey and research, investigation and research of disease, drug-related investigation and research.
Work
Reported that the work of the pharmaceutical industry-related positions, including management practices, research and ideas, learning and education methods.
Health Care Forum
Reported health care experiences in clinical work and experience.
Add a comment
  • Nickname [Register]
  • Password Optional
  • Site URI
  • Email
Enable HTML Enable UBB Enable Emots Hidden Remember