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Ferocious rabies incubation period of up to 20 years http://www.sina.com.cn 2005 07 22 17:47 Weekly new century
- Reporter / Wang Wei, an incubation period of up to 20 years, no effective cure means close to 100% mortality, so that a terror of rabies
Rabies has long been popular in China, since 1951 to carry out activities of national off dogs, rabies control efforts have paid off big, but the 20th century to the 70s
After the epidemic began to rise and more serious.
The last 3 years, the number of rabies deaths in China continued to rise, mortality, the death toll ranks first in all human diseases. At present, the rabies epidemic from south to
North expansion, according to the sampling of parts of China canine rabies recessive carriers of the virus was 10 to 30%. China almost become incurable rabies top infectious diseases.
Interpretation of rabies
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Station, Beijing, Professor Zhou Guilan zoology expert, told this reporter, who visited the rabies more than 100 countries in the world, killing tens of millions of people
Rabies, also known as hydrophobia, rabies virus is a zoonotic disease of acute central nervous system, more common in dogs, wolves, cats, foxes and other carnivorous Activity
Material. Many people bitten by infected animals were ill, the characteristic symptoms of the phenomenon of fear of the water is in water, the patient swallowing muscle spasms occur, you can not swallow the water, the patient population most
Thirsty and did not dare to drink.
The vast majority of human rabies with rabies virus from an animal bites or scratches and infections disease. Short incubation period to 10 days to 2 years or longer length, the general
31 days to 60 days, 15% occurred in the 3 months after the bite site, as the distance from the central nervous system and the bite level, or vary the dose of virus.
Rabies high mortality rate, once the disease is almost all died, the survival of the world only a few cases reported. Rabies after being bitten, but, if timely vaccination
, Then the disease can be avoided almost.
Rabies virus usually exists in the salivary glands of animals, if a person is bitten they would have contracted the virus. But that does not mean the virus will be infected with the disease, because
Must have two necessary conditions for rabies: one animal with rabies virus, the second is the number and virulence of the virus disease to be enough. If the amount is not infected with the virus, virulence is not
Strong, and the body's immune system strong, it may not disease, but a latent infection.
The most effective way to prevent rabies is to vaccinate dogs. Dogs over 3 months, it is necessary to the epidemic prevention department vaccination, as long as the initiative to conduct full immunization,
Can prevent rabies.
So far, the basic means of controllin
Beijing, Shanghai and some cities have begun implementation of compulsory vaccination of dogs.
However, the concern is that in some areas, veterinary rabies vaccines - this should only be granted by the department of animal epidemic prevention with "sentinel immune" qualified pet health
Hospital sale of drugs, in some greedy merchant operation, was able in the pet market, pet clinics open to the other.
2004, Chaoyang District, Beijing authorities on several from the illegal pet hospital had found "unknown" in veterinary rabies vaccine. These non-formal channels
Management can not guarantee that required rabies vaccine must be refrigerated environment, is likely to lose their effect.
Although the veterinary rabies vaccine is worrying, but the status of rabies vaccine for human use still "optimistic." After the inoculation of rabies vaccine in animal bite and the anti-rabies serum is
The main method of prevention of rabies, so a lot of pet ownership and long-term choice in the field of workers vaccinated, but vaccination prices are so high that many people hope and it
Chaoyang District, Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention deputy director Luo Fengji introduction, vaccinated people usually takes 28 days to 5-pin. Beijing CDC public
Uniform price of cloth produced by Sanofi Pasteur vaccine is about 350 per cent; U.S. vaccine company Kay Wing, 630 yuan or so per cent. In the economic benefits
Driven by interests, other provinces and cities appeared before the unscrupulous traders buying and selling unauthorized distribution channels for illegal rabies vaccine for human use, but Beijing has not yet been found for this situation.
By law, human vaccines can only be unified by the provincial department of health and epidemic prevention order and use, in addition, no person shall interfere with the sale of human vaccines.
But after the events of Anhui hepatitis A vaccine, the vaccine situation even more worried.
While the rabies vaccine to a certain extent, prevent the occurrence of rabies, but not 100% effective. Rabies after being bitten, as long as the normal processing of injury
Mouth, and timely use of anti-rabies serum and whole injection of rabies vaccine in sufficient quantities, that is, a three-pronged approach, more than 99% of patients without incident.
But experts say there is still 1% of the people can not escape the rabies that hurdle, and perhaps in a few days after onset, perhaps in a few years after the attack. Therefore, vaccine,
Is not a fundamental law.
Control dogs suffering from, and perhaps not completely eliminate the incidence of rabies, but at least reduce its appearance. Approach taken by management, significantly more people than the vaccine
In recent years, the incidence of rabies in China
Time to report the number of deaths reported incidence of mortality figures
1 October 2004, died 2200 due to rabies
Landlord: Hello, please look at the incubation period of rabies: general for the bite, the virus along the peripheral nerve axis of 1-3mm / h mobile speed of rabies virus to the central nervous system in the body of the incubation period is usually 30 to 60 days , the shortest 10 days, up to a year, rarely more than one year. 1, in fact, more than 1 year account for only 1%, can be said to have been very rare, over the years that are not essential to the disease. 2, before the onset of injections are effective, but people had the longest incubation period (1 year) no disease, one with the rabies virus is impossible, but I think for many years has been no need for an injection to; 3, above has been said, one year after the bite did not scratch disease will no longer onset (scratched by an animal bite is only about 10% of people who are infected with rabies virus might be); general bite scratch just when times after vaccination A year later vaccination is not much meaning, so as soon as possible after the bite scratch inoculation; if you do not worry, I tell you that no matter how much time after the bite scratch vaccinated against rabies, as long as you take complete without disease after 5 doses of vaccine , it is certainly effective. If rabies can not be cured, so whether you are infected with the virus after biting scratching, as soon as possible should be vaccinated against rabies. To your health
Incidence of basic overview
Not all people infected by the disease, are dogs (rabies) bite of about 30% -70% incidence, morbidity or not, and the length of incubation with the following factors: â‘ the site of bite. Bites head, neck, hands of the relatively short incubation period; â‘¡ rabies virus has a strong affinity for the nervous system, the virus enters the body, mainly along the transmission and spread of the nervous system, the virus invades the human body in the wound after the first skeletal muscle and nerve breeding, which is called the local small breeding season, this period may be longer or shorter, the shortest was 72 hours and up to several weeks, months or even longer. The virus after propagation in the local invasion of a small amount of nerve endings along the peripheral nerves to the rate of 3mm per hour to the central nervous system to promote, to reach the large population of spinal cord after 24 hours throughout the nervous system. After the virus has spread along the peripheral nerve to finally reach many tissues and organs, such as the salivary glands, taste buds, cornea, muscle, skin, etc., as head, face, neck, hands and other parts rich in nerves, the virus is easy propagation, combined from close to the central nervous, so after the onset of these areas were more likely to be bitten, the incubation period is shorter; injuries more severe, the more easily disease. Major violations of the virus in the central nervous vagus nerve nucleus, the glossopharyngeal nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus. The main nucleus swallowing muscles and respiratory muscles dominated by the rabies virus assault to in a highly excited state, when the water when he heard the sound of water by sound, light hair, and other stimuli, can make swallowing muscles and respiratory muscles spasm, causing swallowing and breathing difficulties. Pathogens, pathogens that cause rabies virus family slug rabies virus, rabies virus (Rabies Virus). Complete was the bullet-shaped rabies virus, about the length of about 200 nanometers in diameter about 70 nm. The virus from the outermost lipid bilayer membrane, structural protein shell and the load of genetic information in RNA molecules. Rabies virus is widely accepted that there are four different serotypes. Rabies virus is very weak resistance to adverse environmental, surface active agents, disinfectants such as formaldehyde, mercuric chloride, iodine, acid-base environment, there will soon be inactive, and extremely sensitive to heat and ultraviolet light. Clinical performance and the general similarity of viral encephalitis, the most specific and significant changes have there is a diagnosis of Negri's bodies (80% of rabies found in nerve cells of patients with eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in one), round or oval, about the size of 3 ~ 10Î¼m, neat edges, there are 1 or 2 seemed to be the nucleus of a small point. The most common pyramidal cells in the brain hippocampus and cerebellum Puerjinie's cells. Negri's expression has been confirmed as the virus of small colony, was seen under electron microscopy, small rod-shaped virus particles containing the body. If the human brain or animal brain cells found in such a small body, to be confirmed. The performance of one stage clinical symptoms of rabies can be divided into four phases. 1. Latency: (average of about 1-3 months), the incubation period of infection without any symptoms. 2. Prodromal phase: the infection began to appear general malaise, fever, fatigue, anxiety, bite site pain, paresthesia and other symptoms. 3. Excitement: the symptoms of patients reached a peak mental stress, convulsions, hallucinations, delirium, photophobia afraid afraid of the wind sound so afraid of water and hence the symptoms of rabies is also known as hydrophobia, patients are often due to spasm of the throat died of suffocation. 4. Unconsciousness period: If the patient is able to survive through periods of excitement and luck, you will enter a coma period, the current patients with deep coma, but the symptoms of rabies are no longer clear that most patients entering this phase of the final failure death. Wild-type symptoms in dogs in three phases, prodromal period, period of excitement and paralysis. (1) prodromal period (depressed phase) :1-2 days, the dogs, the lack of characteristic symptoms, easily overlooked. Is mainly characterized by mild abnormalities, dogs, subtle, unusual move, easy to anger, do not listen to calls. Bites itching, often the local tongue licking. (2) violent period: highly excited dogs to attack people and livestock. violent and depressed often alternating. lying to not move when you are tired, but soon erected, showing specific expression of strabismus and fear . when once again by external stimuli, but also the emergence of new attacks. frenzy attack, since biting the limbs, tail and genitals and so on. dogs wandering the field, most do not go everywhere, bite people and animals. With the course of development, caught in consciousness, reflection disorders, weight loss, hoarseness, folder tail, sunken eyes, dilated pupils in or out, drooling. (3) paralysis of 1-2 days. dogs, sagging lower jaw, tongue prolapse extraoral, salivation significant paralysis of the hindquarters and limbs, lying in can not afford, and finally because of failure of respiratory center paralysis or death. the whole course of 1-10 days. the symptoms of the disease incubation period of 10 days to 1 year or more, up to 6 years, ten years of no evidence, generally 30 to 90 days . Two types of clinical, excited type (typically) the most common type of occasional paralysis. Excitatory prodromal period was divided, excitement, and the paralysis of the period, prodromal period for 1 ~ 4, mainly as local paresthesia, in the vicinity of the wound has healed and the neural pathways have hemp, itching or pain, its distal Radiation can have intermittent tingling limbs formication, while systemic symptoms often appear, such as fever, headache, fatigue, irritability, fear, anxiety, etc., followed by the sound, light, wind and other stimuli sensitive and throat tighten. Exciting period for 1 to 3 days, mainly for fear of water, fear of the wind, fear of sound, sensitive to light and excited anxiety, terror exceptions, the most typical symptoms are fear of water: drinking water, heard the sound of water and even drinking water can induce serious about pharyngeal muscle cramps, extreme thirst so often do not dare to drink, after drinking will not be able to swallow. Breeze, sound, touch, etc. can also cause pharyngeal muscle spasm. In severe cases, seizures can occur with respiratory muscle spasms breathing difficulties, and even convulsions. Autonomic nervous system function has hyperthyroidism, manifested as sweating, heart rate, blood pressure, salivary secretion. Drinking water and sweating it because they can not often dehydrated. Temperature often rises to 38 ~ 40 â„ƒ. Most mind clear, even to mental disorders, delirium, hearing voices, but the bites are rare. Paralysis of continuous 6 to 18 hours. Patients is becoming quiet, seizures stopped, the emergence of various paralysis, limb paralysis which is more common. May also have ocular, facial and masticatory muscle paralysis, manifested as eye movement disorders, sagging jaw, mouth flow of saliva, can also be any errors tone, feeling diminished reflexes, dilated pupils, weak or irregular breathing, coma, often due to respiratory and circulatory failure and rapid death. The entire course of the disease an average of 4 days, generally no more than 6, more than 10 were rare. Paralysis of the precursor of the same type of performance, fever, headache, general malaise and paresthesia site of the bite, followed by the emergence of various paralysis, such as limb paralysis, ascending spinal paralysis, and finally died of respiratory muscle paralysis often, this type of course can longer, about 7 to 10 days. Complications The main complications of rabies increased intracranial pressure, hypothalamic involvement of antidiuretic hormone secretion caused by too much or too little (causing diabetes insipidus), autonomic nerve dysfunction caused by hypertension, hypotension, arrhythmia (supraventricular cardiac tachycardia, bradycardia and even cardiac arrest) or hypothermia. Seizures are common, can be generalized or focal. Respiratory disorders, such as hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis in the prodromal period and the acute phase common. Hypoxia may also occur for the late. There have been reported complications of congestive heart failure, acute renal failure, superior vena cava thrombosis, pulmonary or urinary tract infections and secondary gastrointestinal bleeding. Pathology of rabies virus enters the body after the first infection of muscle cells, muscle cells through the incubation period, the latter through the muscle cells and between nerve cells into nerve cells acetylcholine receptor, and then along the same pathway into the spinal cord, and then into the brain, and does not extend to blood spread. Virus infection in the brain, the hippocampus, cerebellum, brain stem and the whole central nervous system, and a large number of replication in the gray matter, extending down to reach the salivary glands nerve, cornea, nasal mucosa, lung, skin and other parts. Rabies virus within the host matrix from the major damage to bodies, that is, the protein shell of its waste accumulation in the cells formed eosinophilic granules, bodies were widely distributed within the matrix of the central nervous system cells in the patient, but also the disease lab an indicator of the diagnosis. 1 rabies phobia, often accompanied by obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobia. 2, there were many dogs, cats hurt the experience too, and have some knowledge of rabies. Light are afraid of contact with animals, fear of rabies infection, and even see the animals associated with rabies, it has been associated with their own infection. Severe cases, even if vaccinated, it can not eliminate their anxiety and fear. The fundamental reason is the lack of understanding of rabies. Recommendations to the psychologist to see a psychiatrist. This mental illness, many of the irresponsible remarks by some misleading, for example: rabies incubation period of several decades, healthy animals can be infected. If diagnosis is rabies animal (bite when their brain tissue for disease or pathology of rabies were confirmed, depending on whether the disease, but also whichever brain tissue for pathological examination) bite history and typical symptoms (such as fear of water ) to the initial diagnosis. Postmortem brain tissue examination (Negri's bodies positive for rabies virus antigen positive or isolated rabies virus) can be confirmed. Should rabies hysteria and rabies vaccine encephalomyelitis phase identification, diagnosis of rabies by clinical symptoms or laboratory testing. Clinical diagnosis diagnosis based on clinical symptoms described above. Less obvious symptoms of prodromal period, generally difficult to diagnose. Asked whether the bite history, or whether the abnormal wound feel may help diagnosis. If the typical fear of water or throat spasms, it is not difficult to diagnose. In the diagnosis of other diseases that need identification are: (1) rabies phobia: These patients often have knowledge of rabies or rabies patients seen people attack. Such people are terror of rabies, a surface site of the bite of pain symptoms have the spirit of terror. However, this patient had no fever, no real water throat muscle spasm, there is no fear of water phenomenon. (2), meningitis, encephalitis, and rabies often easily confused with prodromal symptoms. However, there was no history of bites, the mental state appeared slow, drowsiness, coma and convulsions, etc., and conscious of rabies, panic anxiety and other symptoms are different. Laboratory diagnosis of brain tissue test-based bodies; fluorescence immunoassay antibody screening; secretions animal inoculation experiments; serum antibody test; reverse transcriptase PCR method to check the virus RNA.
Pathogens and pathogen transmission of pathogens leading to rabies virus family is the Slug rabies virus, rabies virus RabiesVirus. Complete was the bullet-shaped rabies virus, about the length of about 200 nanometers in diameter about 70 nm. The virus from the outermost lipid bilayer membrane, structural protein shell and the load of genetic information in RNA molecules. Rabies virus is widely accepted that there are four different serotypes. Virus resistance is very weak, the surface active agent, formaldehyde, mercuric chloride, acid-base environment will soon die, and extremely sensitive to heat and ultraviolet light. Rabies virus is a RNA virus, is a bomb-like virus family, one end rounded, one end of the flat, just like bullets. There are two strains of rabies virus: one is natural can cause rabies virus strains, strong drug, called natural virus or street drugs; one for the rabbit brain after repeated passages of the virus, called the fixed drug. Fixed strain of human pathogenic significantly decreased, but still maintain a good antigen, into the human body can stimulate antibody production, it can be used to prepare vaccines. Virus resistance is not strong, at 56 â„ƒ 30 minutes or 100 â„ƒ 2 conditions can be inactivated, but at 4 â„ƒ and 0 â„ƒ, respectively, the following can remain viable for several weeks and years. General disinfection methods, such as sunlight, ultraviolet radiation, formaldehyde and quaternary ammonium disinfectant (benzalkonium bromide, etc.) are able to kill, it was mad dog bite wounds can be washed Bromogeramine. Rabies virus in chicken embryo, duck embryo, suckling mouse brain and a variety of tissue culture (eg, human diploid cells, hamster kidney cells, etc.) in the growth, so this method can be used from the patient or disease virus isolation and preparation of animal body vaccine. All warm-blooded animal can be infected by the disease, but the source of infection in most areas are mainly dogs (about 90%), sick, sick wolf followed. In dogs, cats rabies has been controlled areas, the main source of infection is the wild animals, such as Western Europe, North America, fox, skunk, Central and South America, the vampire bats, insectivorous bats and so on. Healthy people infected patients is unlikely, it should also pay attention isolation. Dogs, wolves and so sick with the virus in saliva more days before the onset of illness that is contagious. Virus is mainly enter the body through the bite wound. The base bodies: the brain tissue of patients eosinophilic inclusion bodies, shot down for the rabies virus, were round or oval, were stained cherry red, with a diagnosis. 1 first aid measures were not identifying stray animals or animal bite their health or not, should wash the wound immediately. Use a clean gauze after washing the wound covered, speed to the hospital for treatment. 2, sub-health dog bite dog bite dog bites and rabies (the latter also known as rabies or hydrophobia), the former is more of danger, which is often stored in the mad dog rabies virus in saliva, in addition to the dog, the infected cat, the wolf bites can also occur in this disease, the infected animal bite without making anti-rabies injections were 30% incidence rate of 70% or more. Western medicine treatment the patients were isolated in the dark room to avoid the sound, light, wind and other stimuli, health care workers should wear masks and rubber gloves to prevent skin, nasal and oral mucosa and saliva of patients with small breakage to the contamination. Sustained attention in patients with respiratory and cardiovascular system. Other conditions can be symptomatic treatment of patients. In addition, scientists now have some nerve toxins in the study by the rabies virus can be used to treat other parasites in the human nervous system diseases caused by viruses. Great harm to human rabies, human rabies in dogs, once they are bitten, rabies vaccine as soon as possible, such as severe should be added injection of serum or immune globulin, as long as no disease, which is the process of antibody and virus race, once the attack, mortality rate is 100%. Save the world, only one case was over, but do not have the promotional value. Therefore, according to animal owners must immunization program on a regular basis to other animals injected with rabies vaccine to prevent being bitten by dogs. For large dogs must be domesticated captive, tied support, and to prevent free-range bite others, were once unknown to the dog bite epidemic prevention departments immediately after the emergency immunization. For ownerless dogs and wild dogs that control measures should be taken immediately after. Was positive or suspicious animals or animals suffering from rabies after the bite, the wounds in time to 20% or 0.1% of the new clean soapy water and eliminate (or other quaternary ammonium drugs) a thorough cleaning. Because soap can be in and quaternary ammonium drugs, so the two can not be combined. Rinse coated with 75% alcohol or 2 ~ 3% of the iodine. Not suture the wound. Not excluded in the animal bite animal rabies have been before or can not be observed, the patient should be timely injection of rabies vaccine. Apart from being bitten, where animal rabies is suspected suck lick, scratch, scratch the skin, mucous membranes, the need to vaccinate, there are four commonly used rabies vaccine: inactivated sheep brain vaccine (Semple's vaccine), ducks embryo vaccine, inactivated vaccine milk animal brain tissue and tissue culture vaccines. The first three applications longer, biological products are the most coarse, containing a large number of non-viral antigens, can cause serious and even fatal complications such as encephalitis, meningitis, etc.; its low immunogenicity, it takes injection of a long time. So more than advocating the current application of tissue culture vaccines, such as hamster kidney vaccine, the vaccine fetal bovine kidney, chick embryo cell vaccine and human diploid cell vaccine, human diploid cell vaccine which is best, not only effective prevention, but also No serious adverse reactions. If the past has been full of other rabies vaccination is only injected once. China's current production of hamster kidney vaccine Similarly, it is widely used. If the bite is serious and there multiple wounds or wounds in the head, face, neck, fingers are in the same vaccine should be injected anti-rabies serum. The combined use of anti-rabies serum, serum anti-toxin in a timely manner free virus in the body, to prevent the spread of the virus, a relatively prolonged incubation period of rabies, so that the body has enough time to produce its own antibodies, reduce the incidence of the opportunity. The use of anti-rabies serum allergy tests should be done. Because serum can neutralize free virus, but also can reduce the spread of the virus in cell reproduction rate, the latency, the time for auto-antibody production, thereby enhancing the efficacy of the vaccine. After application of anti-rabies serum could inhibit the auto-antibody titer and delayed the time of its production, anti-rabies serum is half of the intramuscular injection and half around the wound infiltration injection. On with the rabies virus, contact with sick animals or patients should be more opportunities for infection before vaccination. Rabies vaccine should be at 0,3,7,14,28, respectively on day 1, intramuscular injection needle, a total injection of 5-pin. 0 refers to the injection needle 1 day later and so on. If you need to receive anti-rabies serum, the best use of the vaccine the day before or the day of use, and should be in the vaccine injection of 5-pin full 10 days after the first 20 days and then injected with a needle of the strengthening. Injection of rabies vaccine and serum to be timely, full, sufficient. Chinese medicine treatment so far, no conclusive evidence that Chinese medicine can effectively treat episodes of rabies, because during the onset of the virus has invaded the brain, central nervous system damage, due to the special nature of central nervous system, almost a dead a few nerve cells, and the important function of the central nervous area is damaged, people immediately died. Even if the immunity produced in the central nervous system, then this is a fatal human immune function, and this is why international rescue the girl still had after-effects of that reason. In addition, the incidence of the disease after the very short duration, from onset of symptoms to death is only about 6 days, the longest, but about 10 days, and complete destruction of the virus into the brain nerve just need to complete 24 hours, no agent can be in a few days Without prejudice to the way the central nervous system eliminate the virus and repair nerve, this is why the incidence of rabies is almost 100% of the patients died when the principle. And recorded in the so-called prescription treatment of rabies, and not through the most simple animal experiment. As many people listen to rumors, especially fear, causes the body to mimic the disease, and many of the so-called cure, is a good treatment of this disease rather than a real suspect rabies. Medical knowledge do not understand people who do not know if it is a real medical results can be used to determine the most simple, to say nothing of a medical outcome is the incidence of rabies in the treatment of such good results, must be published in medical journals, in order to explore the peer, if not, but first appeared in the newspaper or do a comprehensive site, then what the vast majority is a lie. In short, the Chinese medicine treatment or cure for rabies that is a lie, at least for now, traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine, as no special effective rabies treatment, rabies and Western are both terminally ill. Rabies incubation period of the right words: Any infectious disease is bacterial or viral infection, to go through a period of time before the disease, people do not have any symptoms during the incubation period, this time is called latency. Fluctuations in the maximum incubation period of rabies can be from 6 days, 12 days to 1 year or 5 years or more, usually within 2 weeks to 3 months the incidence, morbidity 99% within 1 year, 1% incidence in more than 1 year, but in fact more than 1 and a half years have been very rare, the research longest incubation period of 6 years, WHO has verified proof of the actual two 6-year medical history, China's so-called very special for 30 years to 40 years, there is no conclusive evidence. 1, when a person is bitten by dogs and cats, if the animal infected with rabies, the saliva containing the virus when biting, can infect humans, then animals in quarantine for 10 days will be the disease, and death. This is a hundred dogs and cats researchers artificially infected with rabies virus from the actual observation, and be proved in practice in the field, so 10 days if your cat or dog bite is also healthy as usual, you have no infection. 2, infected with rabies virus in dogs and cats in the latency to onset (neurological symptoms) are infectious a few days ago, isolated dog bite incidence is assumed that it was. So not the whole incubation period of isolation, it does not bite when you have any reason for separation? The incubation period is most days, not contagious, and only a few days before neurologic symptoms begin. Therefore, the World Health Organization (WHO) documents and most of the country's public health regulations, to bite a dog or cat suspected of observation need to be isolated for 10 days, during which the incidence of death if the animal is not being bitten people can not or suspension of immunization. Animals before the neurologic symptoms usually begin saliva detox, to death only a few days. Naturally infected with rabies as dogs, cats are not in the saliva of the virus incubation period, the dog is usually 1-5 days before the onset of neurological symptoms have the virus in saliva; symptoms rapidly after the death of a dog, and its concentration in the brain and the saliva of the virus, specific activity Instead, some of the dogs have a longer lower. Experimentally infected cats usually 1-2 days before the onset to 3 days after onset of saliva detoxification. 3, WHO Technical Report Series No. 931, 2004 "WHO Rabies Expert Consultation," the 1st report, called for suspected dog bite cat observed for 10 days. Some experts say "10-day observation period only for non-infected areas", thus not suitable for China. This argument is untenable, this time is based on actual observation and experiment comes from. Rabies occurs mainly in developing countries, WHO's policy on rabies is largely for these countries. Thailand, rabies and stray dogs than of a serious problem, a special study of rabies in Thailand, said veterinarian Dr.: Two decades ago there are also carriers of healthy dogs, healthy dog and human rabies infected dogs did not die in the argument, then Inspection of technological progress, and observed strict methods, these claims did not have. He did research for over 20 years, thousands of suspicious person bites on dogs and cats be isolated for observation, the incidence of death when the dog has to statistics, after the death of the virological test. He said he did not find the dog is not extraordinary incidence of death within 10 days. 4, if the health of their own or a neighbor's cat scratch dog bite, and observed for 10 days, it is healthy as usual, you can rest assured. Some say he / she is the contact for months or years, or bitten by dogs cat scratch, and that was a good animal, is even more need to worry about, and do not receive the vaccine. If stray dogs or run your dog bite, dogs do not know the situation, please go to the CDC advice. 1 World Health Organization say. Are symptoms of a disease or health-cat (dog) and abnormal behavior in dogs (cats), and other warm-blooded animal bites, when you are bitten, rabies vaccine as soon as possible to, while observing the bite your cat (dog), if within 10 days, the cat or dog has not died because of the incidence of rabies, you can terminate the pre-rabies vaccine injections, you can determine you do not have to be infected with rabies. 2. Healthy dogs (cats and other animals) are not infected. ("Infected" is the medical term, meaning "infectious", where "not infected" means that, even cats and dogs carrying the rabies virus, they do not have prior to the onset is not ripe contagious.) 3 . rabies virus mechanism of brain cells in animals caused by viruses of rabies attacks, when the animals usually appear very obvious exceptions, it is easy to identify. Infected animal's saliva when it (a virus), with infectious, if bitten by an animal such pre-rabies vaccine is absolutely necessary. (How to determine whether it is animal rabies attacks, see the article by Professor Zu Shuxian,) 4. Dogs (cats), only rabies attack only infected. Episodes of warm-blooded animals has rabies bites, will it be possible to rabies virus through saliva to human beings, then you need to make pre-vaccine to prevent rabies. 5. In view of dogs, cats and other warm-blooded animals in rabies attack once the attack, 3 to 5 days, 100% of the deaths (rare in the literature that there is 8 days after onset of death.) Therefore, only a few days before it is transmitted on death, have a dangerous bite. Even if you are bitten, within 10 days of the dogs (cats) did not die of rabies disease you do not have to worry about, because when you do not bite in the infectious period. (10-day extension of the World Health Organization specifically the safety of observation period) (This term was originally Dr. Thailand, note that Thailand is also a high incidence of rabies is endemic areas) 6. Rabies has an incubation period, the World Health Organization, through detailed research, the majority 20 days to 2 months, the maximum period of 6 years, as some examples of the World Health Organization expressed skepticism in the world did not find evidence of long-term potential example, infectious disease medical experts and that there may be misdiagnosed or two time exposure (medical terminology, the second is spread.) (the literature says, if the person bitten by 6 days of attacks, is definitely the wrong dog, dead dogs never die who may be the case.) 7. If you raise animals, or frequent contact with animals, it is recommended to do three needle exposure before the first hit of prevention, so if you are bitten, rabies in suspected bite, you can directly hit 2-pin access to immunization. Prevent the spread of the wild animals by feeding bait containing oral rabies vaccine for control communication between pets vaccinated for the pet mandatory preventive vaccination of susceptible populations for easy access to the rabies virus vaccinated people bitten preventive treatment after injury, wash the wound with disinfectant sufficient, such as hydrogen peroxide, iodine-based disinfectant, 0.1% benzalkonium bromide, or 3% -5% soapy water, even when forced to wash with water only are also meaningful. But be careful not to suck the wound through the mouth because the mouth of the small damaged brain may narrow the distance between the rabies virus! (See previous section on the description of pathology.) Deep wound irrigation, use the syringe inserted into the wound by pouring cleaning deep, so complete, and then disinfected with 75% ethanol, followed rubbed with concentrated iodine. Local wound treatment sooner, the better, even if the delay or even 3,4 days 1,2 days of local treatment should not be overlooked at this time if the wound is scab, scab should also be removed and click on the method. After cleaning the wound should be injected with rabies vaccine; vaccination can also infiltrate the wound near the rabies virus antiserum, but if you use the words of anti-serum, it is necessary to increase the amount of the vaccine in order to avoid the vaccine reduced the effect of antiserum. Source of infection management (1) to strengthen the management of dogs and cats to control the spread between pets. Wild dogs should be killed for mandatory pet vaccinated, the incidence of dogs, cats immediately killed, burned or buried. (2) control the spread of wild animals, through feeding bait containing oral rabies vaccine to achieve. Vaccination of rabies virus for easy access to the population vaccinated. China is now using a hamster kidney cell culture rabies fixed virus by formaldehyde inactivated vaccine, intramuscular injection of 5-pin method, namely 0,3,7,14,28 days of the injection of 2ml, such as the level of serious or bite nearly double the amount of central nervous system can be wound vaccination, vaccine doses, such as lack of time or will not affect the preventive effect. Vaccine should be used within the validity period. The use of anti-rabies virus immune sera: a person is bitten, immediately wash the wound in addition to, but can also be applied at high prices against rabies virus immune sera to human serum better dose intramuscular injection of 20-40 per kilogram of body weight international units, half of which was injected around the wound. Such as the application before the horse serum should be done with the allergy test negative before vaccination. Vaccination vaccination vaccination reactions and contraindications of reaction (1) a small number of local reactions at the injection site pain, redness, induration, itching, or edema, and lymph nodes. Systemic reactions: VERO cell rabies vaccine and refined refined hamster kidney cell vaccine, because vaccine purified, impurities white little, so rare or minor side effects vaccination. (2), taboo 1, therapeutic vaccination: Because rabies is a fatal disease, any contraindication to save lives is of secondary importance, it was suffering from rabies after an animal bite prevention without contraindications. 2, preventive vaccination: in the near future to ensure that there will be no chance of rabies virus transmitted source and under the premise of pregnancy and acute diseases, allergies, the use of steroids and immunosuppressive agents may delay vaccination. 3, streptomycin, neomycin allergy caution. 1 Common types of rabies vaccine, prepared in rabbit brain-based pulp attenuated rabies vaccine (Pasteur). 2, sheep brain rabies vaccine (attenuated). 3, hamster kidney cell rabies vaccine. 4, human diploid cell rabies vaccine. 5, Vero cell rabies vaccine. 6, oral rabies vaccine for human use (in research) is currently used by the majority of purified Vero cell rabies vaccine. There are also purification of hamster kidney cell rabies vaccine. Vero cells are currently the best, least side effects of rabies vaccine. Purified vaccine is the place to vaccine impurities in white. To reduce adverse reactions. Vaccine common situation occurs in the first 4,5 if pin (or booster) and over time is not long, for example, 3,5 days, you can immediately fill the back of the needle times postponed. If the time longer than, the meeting after the injection, measured about half the complement of serum anti-rabies virus, according to antibody levels further disposal. If the needle in the first two, the best immediate re-injection of a course of treatment. 2, the rabies vaccine protection. (1) In general, rabies vaccine protection for 6 months (no imports, domestic distinction), finished the last of a needle injection of the first three months after the period of absolute protection, when antibodies at its peak. Antibodies decreased rapidly after three months. Therefore, should the first three months of dog bites again, you can not vaccinated. Dog bites can be enhanced within six months of the two needles. Re-injection of more than six months (to adapt to rabies vaccine). (2) Weier Bo (Vero) purified vaccine (import, non-domestic). 6 months of protection (ibid.). Again within a dog bites a year to enhance the two needles. More than one year to re-injection. 3 Should the vaccine during the production of other adverse reactions (non-manual mentioned) (1) fever. Should the fever, you might consider a cold or other inflammation. You can use anti-cold medicine or western medicine, antibiotics (bacterial infection), but the excitement against taking drugs. Of course, some because vaccination causes, an immune response, this is low-grade fever. Generally no longer have enough antibodies after a fever. (2) rabies symptoms. Some patients on the rabies vaccine is still being waged attacks. Such as: fever (37.5-38 â„ƒ), headache, limbs and bite / lick the wound inflamed, there ants walking, tingling, pharyngeal foreign body sensation, caused by the non-vaccination can be considered as a precursor of rabies, but also sustainable observation . China hot quiz science Infectious Diseases Centers for Disease Control Rabies Rabies knowledge quiz hot spots caused by the rabies virus an acute infectious disease, can infect man and beast, also known as hydrophobia, mad dog disease. Rabies virus is mainly spread in animals. The disease is when the teeth bite through the animal's saliva with the rabies virus into the human body and become infected. Once the disease rabies, and its progress
Fast development, mostly in 3-5 days, rarely more than 10 days, mortality was 100%. Bitten by rabies dog, it will certainly quest for rabies? A: Not necessarily, some scholars have found that to be true statistics of rabies or other crazy animal bites, and do not take any preventive measures, the results only 30% -70% of human cases. Is whether the incidence of rabies after dog bite a lot of factors? A: 1. To see into the body of the rabies virus that the number, if a mad dog bite at the time of the early stages of disease, which brought the rabies virus in saliva than is less after onset. 2. Crazy animal bites head, face and neck such as those near the site of the central nervous system or peripheral nerve-rich parts of the incubation period than those who bite shorter limbs. After being bitten by dogs, how to deal with the wound? A: 1. Bite wound drain immediately after squeezing the venom with foul blood, but never at the mouth of the foul blood to suck the wound. 2. With 20% or 1% of benzalkonium bromide soapy water wash, following with a 2% -3% or 75% alcohol partial iodine disinfection. 3. Local wound closure in principle, do not bandage, do not apply ointment, not powder in order to facilitate wound drainage, such as head and face injuries, or large and deep wound, bandaged injuries required stitches when large vessels should be without prejudice to the drainage to ensure adequate flushing and disinfection of the premise can be stitched after antiserum. What people have symptoms of post-rabies? A: The people have been bitten by rabies virus infected animals, the incubation period without any symptoms, slowly progressive, very few clinical symptoms occur within 20 days, even after 30 days in most cases 2 to 3 months after the onset. More than one year are extremely rare. Early in rabies, many patients have fever, headache, body fat lazy, nausea,