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distribution of lymphatic filariasis


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Caused by filarial parasites in human disease. By the blood-sucking insects. Filarial nematodes is the key link, filarial head, hijab insect families. Slender as silk. Vertebrates other than fish in addition to the final host for the arthropod intermediate host, the host will be the end of arthropod bites infective larvae passed the latter body. Filarial parasites in the human body there are eight: Bancroft Wu Herrell's nematodes (Wuchereria bancrofti, the old translation of Wu making Bancroft nematodes), the Malay cloth Luge Shi nematode (Brugia malayi), spin Onchocerca nematode (Onchocerca volvulus), Ah-Ah-nematode (Luo Asi insects), and often are spiny lip nematode (filarial hijab often now), lip chain tail spine nematode (filarial end of the chain), nematodes Euclidean Manson (Euclidean immitis), and Emperor Wen Bu Lu Geshi nematodes (Emperor Wen Si insects). Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi of adult parasites in the lymphatic system, it said the lymphatic type; both microfilaria sheath, popular region wide. Various filarial parasites on the rest of connective tissue (Ah, Onchocerca volvulus parasitic skin and chain end to form a mass, I found in the body cavity), it said tissue; addition Luo Asi insects, the microfilaria-free sheath. Both adult and larval filarial slender as silk, ovoviviparous, the female microfilaria production, through the line to stay in the blood or tissue fluid, the case of blood-sucking insects ─ ─ mosquitoes, Simuliidae, Tabanidae and other inhaled stomach, that is, in the body develop into infective larvae, when the insect bite and then escape from the beak into the human body by sucking the wound, signs and symptoms of filariasis due to filarial parasite location varies. The diagnosis of blood or skin tissue against the detection of microfilaria. Hai Qun effective treatment. Preventive measures to eliminate vector, to enhance personal protection, treatment of infected patients and all the people taking to eliminate the source of infection. Filariasis endemic in Asia, Africa and Oceania, in China only to see Bancroftian filariasis and Malayan filariasis. In 1984 the World Health Organization estimates, the world Bancroftian filariasis patients infected 8160 people. Malayan filariasis Dili Wensi patients infected 860 people, a total of 9020 patients with lymphatic filariasis-type people. Filariasis patients in China, 3000 million in 1950, the massive prevention and treatment, the 1988 patients across the country about 400 million, mainly distributed in Jiangxi and Anhui.
Bancroftian filariasis Wuchereria bancrofti by the lymphatic system caused by parasites on the body. Is the most widely popular, t
he biggest damage filariasis. The main clinical manifestations of early to lymphangitis, lymphadenitis, the late elephantiasis, chyluria and so on.
Wuchereria bancrofti adult slender shape, such as silk, white, smooth surface. Male sizes up to 42mm × 0.15mm. Female larger, 105mm × 0.3mm. Entwined male and female, settled in the large lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. Ovoviviparous, the female after mating output slender larvae ─ ─ microfilaria.
Wuchereria bancrofti in the life history of mosquitoes and the human body divided in two stages. Blood-sucking mosquitoes human blood when inhaled microfilaria in the stomach. Microfilaria sheath off, through the stomach into the chest cavity through the body, weakening of activity, body straight, and then shortened, thicker, the shape of sausages, sausage-shaped larva called. After peeling sausage-shaped larva 2 gradually became longer and develop into infective larvae ─ ─ filiform larvae. The development of mosquitoes to be 10 to 14 days. Filamentous larvae leave the mosquito's muscle, blood cavity of the beak, when the blood-sucking mosquitoes escape from the sting wound into the body, rapid access to small lymphatic vessels near the skin, and then migrating to the deeper parts (such as lower limbs, scrotum, sperm Faso, groin, pelvis, etc.) of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, in this development. Peeling 2, at 4 months after infection of the human body develop into adults and adults to feed on lymph, a life span of 12 years. Microfilaria output by the thoracic duct after migrating to the blood circulation. It is the life in the body about 2 to 3 months. Bancroftian microfilariae in the pulmonary capillary gathered during the day most of the evening in the peripheral blood after the peak for the 10 pm to 2 am the next day. This is known as the night is cyclical, the earliest found in Xiamen, China. The mechanism is unknown, may be related to the amount of oxygen inhalation, systolic and diastolic pulmonary capillary status and so on. Classes in some parts of the South Pacific's Day is microfilariae was cyclical, and perhaps that is another filarial species.
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High prevalence of the disease in the Eastern Hemisphere to the distribution in latitude 40 ° south latitude 28 °, located in the western hemisphere to latitude 30 ° north latitude and 30 ° between the tropical and subtropical regions in Asia, Africa, more serious. In China, once popular in Shandong, Henan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Taiwan, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou and other places. Who is the only end-host, Paul was not found in nature, insect host. Source of infection for the blood of patients with early microfilaria and parasite are asymptomatic (microfilaria hyperlipidemia). Patients with advanced elephantiasis no more microfilaria, not the main source of infection. The media more than 30 species of 4 genera, such as Anopheles mosquito, Anopheles, Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus. The prevalence of filariasis has obvious local and seasonal. Infection season in China, usually in 5 to 10 months, when temperature, humidity conducive to mosquito breeding and microfilaria development in mosquitoes. Population density and environmental health are also with the epidemic.
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Mainly adults on the lymphatic system damage. Microfilaria in blood generally do not cause disease and clinical symptoms. Adult parasites in the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, often kink into the group. Metabolites of larvae and adults, the female uterine secretions and death worm lysate, can stimulate the lymphatic system, causing inflammation, lymphatic wall edema, eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes, lymph nodes swelling, bleeding. Adult death will cause significant inflammation, as well as tissue necrosis, eosinophilic abscess. Chronic inflammation of the lymphatic lumen can, lymph circulation blocked, lymphatic wall rupture, interstitial lymph fluid retention, high concentrations of protein in lymph and stimulate the skin fibrosis, thickening of the skin thicker, shaped like elephant skin, said as elephantiasis. Here the blood circulation disorder, sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hair follicles is impaired, reduced resistance, easily lead to bacterial infection, causing acute inflammation or chronic ulcers. These situations increase the obstruction of lymphatic vessels and fibrous tissue proliferation. Elephantiasis prevalent in the lower limbs and scrotum, can also be found in upper limbs, breasts and labia minora, the affected part dry skin, hairs fall off, the color deepened, locally heavy, pain and numbness. Severe lower limb elephantiasis, hyperplasia, such as neoplasia-like prominence. If lymph circulation obstruction, the obstruction site of the distal lymphatic pressure increased, the formation of varicose lymphatic vessels, more common in the thigh, groin, spermatic cord, scrotum, etc. If the obstruction occurs in the spermatic cord, testicular lymphatic vessels, can cause hydrocele. If the aortic lymph nodes or intestinal lymphoid stem before the obstruction of chyle from the intestinal absorption of anti-lumbar lymph flow of dry kidney, ruptured varicose lymphatic vessels from the overflow, with urinary excretion, the formation of chyluria.
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Course is divided into three phases: ① incubation period. Larvae into the human body from a filamentous to find microfilaria in the blood, usually 10 to 20 months, more asymptomatic, may have urticaria, short-term fever, mild lymphadenopathy, blood eosinophilia, etc. performance. ② acute phase. Mainly as inflammation of the lymphatic system. Inguinal and femoral lymph nodes, pain, tenderness, 3 to 5 days self-limiting. Lymphadenitis may occur alone or accompanied by lymphangitis. Lymphangitis Lymphadenitis is more associated with the lower limbs more common. Since the onset of multiple lymph node swelling and pain the groin or thigh, and then there is a red line to go along the line of thigh lymphatic spread from the top down, the eccentric lymphangitis, commonly known as "Meteors" (bacterial infection caused by lymphangitis is to Mind). The inflammation may spread to the lymphatic capillaries within the skin, local skin irritation, burning, like erysipelas, recurrent thickening of skin, thigh thickening. Lymphangitis abdominal, retroperitoneal lymph node inflammation can cause abdominal pain. Spermatic cord, testis, epididymis lymphangitis can cause local swelling, systemic symptoms of chills, fever (38 ~ 40 ℃, 2 ~ 3 days), headache, loss of appetite, significant local symptoms do not, this is known as filarial heat. ③ late. Mainly for obstruction of lymph circulation disorders and symptoms such as varicose lymphatic vessels, hydrocele, chyluria, elephantiasis and so on.
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Be found from the blood mainly by immitis microfilaria. Methods commonly used blood film method, thick blood film method and the concentration method, were next morning at 21 o'clock to 2 fingers between the blood from the ear lobe or check. Immunological methods such as the intradermal test, indirect fluorescent antibody test, ELISA, etc. can be used as auxiliary means of diagnosis and epidemiological survey.
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Diethylcarbamazine (sea Qun) for the treatment of choice. Rapid excretion of the drug absorption, low toxicity, adult and microfilariae of filarial are killing effect. After taking a large number of microfilaria were killed, the protein can cause allergic reactions the opposite sex, fever, chills, headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, muscle and joint pain, oral aspirin reduce the reaction, the reaction should be re-suspended diethylcarbamazine. Diethylcarbamazine and the proportion of 3% can be mixed with salt, take the whole people within a certain range 3 to 6 months, the local microfilaria positive rate decreased significantly. 10% of diethylcarbamazine cream can be applied dubbed the skin, drugs can be absorbed through the skin into the lymph. L imidazole and furan ethyl ketone IV also effective. Acute lymphangitis and lymphadenitis available phenylbutazone, aspirin, prednisone and other treatment. Hydrocele, chyluria, elephantiasis and other possible surgical treatment, elephantiasis can also be bundled with baking heat therapy.
Malayan filariasis parasite Brugia malayi from the diseases caused by the human body. The adult Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria and smaller like. Life history also seems to Wuchereria bancrofti, the major media as Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles, Aedes East, often based Mansonia and so on. Larvae in the mosquitoes that after about 7 days to develop into infective larvae. Adult parasites in the human body mainly superficial lymphatic system, very few violations of internal or deep lymphatic system, prevalent in the lower extremities (especially legs and dorsal) superficial lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes, causing acute inflammation, frequent seizures, the symptoms are severe and repeated attack can cause elephantiasis. Hydrocele, scrotal elephantiasis and chyluria and other urogenital symptoms and signs rare. In addition to the infection of human Brugia malayi, it will also infected monkeys, cats and pangolins. Malayan filariasis is only distributed in Asia, such as China, Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, the distribution of Bancroftian filariasis with more overlap. Mainly in the Yangtze River in China south of Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Henan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou and other places, but not in Taiwan and Shandong. Filariasis endemic area of two adjacent zones of pure range of less visible areas of mixed worm infections. Brugia malayi microfilariae night is also cyclical, seen in the peripheral blood of the peak time of 8 pm to 4 pm next morning. Malay classmate's diagnosis of filariasis filariasis, diethylcarbamazine treatment also used, but the smaller dose, shorter course of treatment. Severe allergic reaction treatment process. Likewise prevention Bancroftian filariasis.
Ah filariasis parasite by a Luo Asi subcutaneous tissue in the body caused by disease. Popular in West Africa and Sudan. Loa generic term in the Department of the Congo dialect, meaning "Euglena", often because of the filarial adult migration to the eye, hence the name. Adult parasites in the tissue under the skin, around channeling the line, walk the formation of skin tumors, common in the back, axilla, groin, scalp, eyelids, also found in the anterior chamber, conjunctiva, etc. Females in the transitional process of real estate out of microfilaria intermittent. Microfilaria with a sheath, into the bloodstream, is periodically presented day and night are concentrated in the lungs, the patient was the only source of infection. Intermediate host of several spots for the day sucking horsefly. Gadfly microfilaria intestine sucked after migrating to the fat body, after 7 days to develop into infective larvae, and migration to the mouthparts, the horsefly bite when escape from their mouthparts, sucking the wound by immersion in the human body. Develop into adults after 1 year, this time caused by migratory mass side (which can be as big as eggs, lasted for several hours to several days), skin itching and a sense of ant line, conjunctivitis and other symptoms. Diagnosis of the seizure by the microfilaria in blood or subcutaneous tissue, adult seized under the conjunctiva. Diethylcarbamazine treatment is effective. Extraction procedure is simple and reliable adult.
Onchocerciasis onchocerciasis parasite from the subcutaneous tissue in the body caused by disease. Prevalent in Central Africa and Mexico, northern South America and other places. Popular area activities in the river stream was the bite of infected blackflies, often caused by eye disease is caused by the blind, it is the disease known as river blindness. Onchocerciasis than adult filarial lymphatic type, parasitic in the chest, abdomen, waist, legs, head and subcutaneous tissue, the formation of fibrous capsule around, manifested as subcutaneous nodules, containing two or more adults, the size about 5 ~ 25mm, no pain, local skin itching. No microfilaria sheath, produced in the subcutaneous nodules can drill down to the surrounding tissue and lymphatic nodules, blood vessels, but are rarely seen in peripheral blood, no obvious periodicity. If the adult parasites in the eyes near the microfilaria via lymphatic or capillary migration to the eye, causing the cornea, iris, choroid, retinal inflammation, may damage the lens, vitreous, resulting in visual impairment, even blindness. Source of infection for patients, protect livestock insect host not found. Intermediate hosts for the media and Simulium. Simulium mouthparts chunky, not deep puncture, blood-sucking when a large number of organizations also aspiration fluid, tissue fluid aspiration microfilaria Simulium with the digestive tract, followed by migration to the chest, 6 to 7 days after the larvae develop into infective larvae ─ ─ filamentous, migration to the lower lip Simuliidae, Simulium bites when immersed in the body. It is reported that 40 days after infection symptoms. Subcutaneous nodules of the disease confirmed by skin biopsy at the seizure of microfilaria. Diethylcarbamazine to kill the microfilaria, but it should be noted that allergic reactions to the adult is not valid. Intravenous injection of suramin to kill adult. Surgical dissection of the subcutaneous nodules can be used.
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distribution of lymphatic filariasis

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Hubei Province, the geographical distribution of human lymphatic filariasis - "Public Health and Preventive Medicine" 1990 01 www.cnki.net the literature sources CNKI
Hubei is located in the old animal division at the northern boundary of the confluence with the Oriental, terrain, animal species and more. Unlike the geographic distribution of filariasis in other provinces. Features are as follows: 1. Popular types: mountain Southwest and living conditions of the geographical environment resulted in a large number of Culex mosquitoes breeding breeding, a major mass media, the Department of the province the main endemic area of Bancroftian filariasis, including Padang, Enshi, Xuan Well, Hefeng, Laifeng, Icheon, Xianfeng, construction
【Author】: Hubei Academy of Medical Sciences; Hubei Academy of Medical Sciences; Hubei Academy of Medical Sciences; Hubei Academy of Medical Sciences; Hubei Academy of Medical Sciences; Hubei Academy of Medical Sciences
】 【DOI: cnki: ISSN :1006-2483 .0.1990-01-016
Snapshot】 【text:
Hubei is located in the old animal division at the northern boundary of convergence with the Oriental Wu, Macheng, Huangshi, Daye, Yangxin. Another much security, anywhere, complex terrain, and more animal species. State of the geographical distribution of filariasis, Pu Yi popular Malay mixed filarial filariasis based Unlike the two other provinces. Features are as follows: disease. 1. Popular types: Southwest residents of mountain geography and geographic distribution of students across the province was its filariasis
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Abstract: Objective To summarize and analyze the elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Jiujiang City experience, measures and effects. Methods A retrospective investigation of the prevalence of Jiujiang City, the distribution of filariasis, filariasis control program for filariasis research and control strategies, measures and their effects were summarized and analyzed. Results 1972, 11 years ago, Jiujiang City, 165 rural counties, towns popular filariasis, microfilaria population was 14.85% (165237/1112540), the mass media as Anopheles sinensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on the epidemiological investigation carried out staining of microfilaria, sea Qun different treatment efficacy in the treatment of filariasi
s and control of filariasis repeatedly check the effect of treatment of filariasis control program for such research, established eliminate the source of infection led strategy and adopted rule check with focus groups repeatedly taking measures. 1988 compliance assessment filariasis basically eliminated the provincial level, the average population rate of 0.16% microfilaria. Then stratified cluster monitoring, pathogen monitoring from 1989 to 1999 in 34 townships and 50 villages, the average microfilaria rate of 0.29% (140/47321), after 2000 no monitoring of mosquito-borne pathogen and found that human filarial infection. 2001 review by the provincial review team, to the Ministry of Health standards for elimination of filariasis. Conclusions taken to eliminate the main source of infection prevention and control measures, and after basic elimination of filariasis epidemiological surveillance and national medication, medicated salt control, can achieve the goal of filariasis elimination.
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